Almost 1, pages of pure scientific truth about evolution! Thousands of scientific facts, disproving every basic area of evolutionary theory. A fascinating book that is easy to read. Full of facts most people are not aware of. Written so key points quickly jump out at you. Browse through this book and you will soon know more about a far wider range of scientific facts than many scientists are taught. Topically arranged, easy-to-read print size, and a full-size index-so you can quickly find what you are looking for. Written for all ages, but outstanding for students. Includes study questions and research helps.
Evolution: Fact and Theory
Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information.
As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale. To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods.
According to evolutionary theory’s assumption-based dating methods and circular reasoning (see DeYoung, ), for well over million years large sauropod dinosaurs roamed the Earth. Antetonitrus allegedly lived more than million years ago, Apatosaurus million years ago, and Argentinosaurus 95 million years ago—about 30 million years before dinosaurs are said to have gone extinct.
Resplendence The natural complement to science in reflowering the Tree of Life. Entheogens, the Conscious Brain and Existential Reality A state of the art research overview of what is currently known about how entheogens affect the brain and to explore their implications for understanding the conscious brain and its relationship to existential reality.
Reproductive Technology and Germ-Line Engineering: The Comprehensive Tree Linked in figure 1 is a high-resolution image of the evolutionary tree of life, from viruses through bacteria and archaea to protista, plants, animals and fungi, with a selection of representative species illustrated. I have updated and amended this several times as new research has clarified specific parts of the trunk and branches. The evolutionary tree of life is our immortal progenitor, not just of ourselves, but of all the species with which we co-depend, so we need to both understand it and protect it for the future generations.
This initial tree forms a good representation of the evolution of higher plants and fungi, so the remainder of the article will examine the tortuous route from the last common ancestor, through the eucaryotes to metazoa, and ultimately to humanity, language and culture. This article seeks to be a real time account of the discovery processes showing us in ever-incteasing detail, the nature of the tree and its many tangled interactions, both at the genetic and organismic level. It also strives to be a fully up-to-date scientfic account of the discovery process for which we all owe a vote of thanks to the many researchers whose work is illustrated and cited in this extensive review article.
Where the trees are complicated and detailed, high-resolution versions can be viewed by clicking each of the images.
44 Reasons Why Evolution Is Just A Fairy Tale For Adults
Therefore it should come as no surprise that creationists at the Institute for Creation Research ICR have been trying desperately to discredit this method for years. They have their work cut out for them, however, because radiocarbon C dating is one of the most reliable of all the radiometric dating methods. This article will answer several of the most common creationist attacks on carbon dating, using the question-answer format that has proved so useful to lecturers and debaters.
How does carbon dating work? Cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere are constantly converting the isotope nitrogen N into carbon C or radiocarbon.
Equipped with technologies not much beyond a clock, compass, measuring tape, scale, thermometer, clinometer, and a microscope, the experience eventually propelled Charles Darwin to propose a new world-shattering theory of evolution in his book–The Origin of Species.
Other problem-solving techniques Concisely stated, a genetic algorithm or GA for short is a programming technique that mimics biological evolution as a problem-solving strategy. Given a specific problem to solve, the input to the GA is a set of potential solutions to that problem, encoded in some fashion, and a metric called a fitness function that allows each candidate to be quantitatively evaluated.
These candidates may be solutions already known to work, with the aim of the GA being to improve them, but more often they are generated at random. The GA then evaluates each candidate according to the fitness function. In a pool of randomly generated candidates, of course, most will not work at all, and these will be deleted. However, purely by chance, a few may hold promise – they may show activity, even if only weak and imperfect activity, toward solving the problem.
These promising candidates are kept and allowed to reproduce. Multiple copies are made of them, but the copies are not perfect; random changes are introduced during the copying process. These digital offspring then go on to the next generation, forming a new pool of candidate solutions, and are subjected to a second round of fitness evaluation. Those candidate solutions which were worsened, or made no better, by the changes to their code are again deleted; but again, purely by chance, the random variations introduced into the population may have improved some individuals, making them into better, more complete or more efficient solutions to the problem at hand.
Again these winning individuals are selected and copied over into the next generation with random changes, and the process repeats. The expectation is that the average fitness of the population will increase each round, and so by repeating this process for hundreds or thousands of rounds, very good solutions to the problem can be discovered. As astonishing and counterintuitive as it may seem to some, genetic algorithms have proven to be an enormously powerful and successful problem-solving strategy, dramatically demonstrating the power of evolutionary principles.
Genetic algorithms have been used in a wide variety of fields to evolve solutions to problems as difficult as or more difficult than those faced by human designers.
Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy: Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Anti-Semitism: Summary , Reviews , Ordering information George Michael, a political scientist at the University of Virginia-Wise, has written an academic article summarizing my writing on Judaism. It also reviews some of the criticisms leveled at my work, and contains an interview with me.
Legitimate Scholarship or the Intellectualization of Anti-Semitism? Journal of Church and State, 48 4 , —
Define the primary mechanisms by which evolution takes place. Identify the two major classes of adaptations. Define sexual selection and its two primary processes. Define gene selection theory. Identify the core premises of sexual strategies theory. Identify the core premises of error management theory, and provide two empirical examples of adaptive cognitive biases. Introduction It may seem like just a casual date, but don’t doubt that the forces of evolution are hard at work below the surface.
In fact, you may even consider flossing your teeth for the first time all year. But how did you learn these particular behaviors?
5 facts about evolution and religion
Public Opinion Introduction The television, newspapers, and textbooks commonly proclaim, as though it were proven fact, that the earth is 4 to 5 billion years old. What is not commonly taught is how the scientists determined that age. What assumptions did they make? What evidence did they use? What evidence did they discard? We will examine these questions in this article.
The Evolution Handbook. Author: Vance Ferrell Chapter 1 – History of Evolutionary Theory How modern science got into this problem. Chapter 2 – The Big Bang and Stellar Evolution Chapter 6 – Inaccurate Dating Methods Why the non-historical dating techniques are unreliable.
Genetic diversity and Population genetics An individual organism’s phenotype results from both its genotype and the influence from the environment it has lived in. A substantial part of the phenotypic variation in a population is caused by genotypic variation. The frequency of one particular allele will become more or less prevalent relative to other forms of that gene.
Variation disappears when a new allele reaches the point of fixation —when it either disappears from the population or replaces the ancestral allele entirely. Before the discovery of Mendelian genetics, one common hypothesis was blending inheritance. But with blending inheritance, genetic variance would be rapidly lost, making evolution by natural selection implausible. The Hardy—Weinberg principle provides the solution to how variation is maintained in a population with Mendelian inheritance.
The frequencies of alleles variations in a gene will remain constant in the absence of selection, mutation, migration and genetic drift. Despite the constant introduction of new variation through mutation and gene flow, most of the genome of a species is identical in all individuals of that species. Mutation Duplication of part of a chromosome Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell’s genome.
When mutations occur, they may alter the product of a gene , or prevent the gene from functioning, or have no effect. This process is easier once a gene has been duplicated because it increases the redundancy of the system; one gene in the pair can acquire a new function while the other copy continues to perform its original function. Sexual reproduction , Genetic recombination , and Evolution of sexual reproduction In asexual organisms, genes are inherited together, or linked, as they cannot mix with genes of other organisms during reproduction.
In contrast, the offspring of sexual organisms contain random mixtures of their parents’ chromosomes that are produced through independent assortment.
Scientists are accused of distorting theory of human evolution by misdating bones
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment.
Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.
Human evolution, the process by geochemical dating techniques, and data from other specialized fields such as genetics, ecology and paleoecology, and ethology (animal behaviour)—in short, See the article evolution for a full explanation of evolutionary theory.
They argued that the embryos of ‘higher’ animals went through or recapitulated a series of stages, each of which resembled an animal lower down the great chain of being. For example, the brain of a human embryo looked first like that of a fish , then in turn like that of a reptile , bird , and mammal before becoming clearly human. The embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer opposed this, arguing in that there was no linear sequence as in the great chain of being, based on a single body plan , but a process of epigenesis in which structures differentiate.
Von Baer instead recognised four distinct animal body plans: Zoologists then largely abandoned recapitulation, though Ernst Haeckel revived it in Lancelet a chordate , B. Larval tunicate , C. Kowalevsky saw that the notochord 1 and gill slit 5 are shared by tunicates and vertebrates. Morphology biology and Body plan From the early 19th century through most of the 20th century, embryology faced a mystery.
Animals were seen to develop into adults of widely differing body plan , often through similar stages, from the egg, but zoologists knew almost nothing about how embryonic development was controlled at the molecular level , and therefore equally little about how developmental processes had evolved.